Monday, June 22, 2020

Theories of Employee Motivation Jumeirah Group - 4125 Words

Theories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah Group (Research Paper Sample) Content: Theories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah GroupNameInstitution AffiliationTheories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah GroupAbstractThis paper sets out to examine the different theories of motivation with an overriding objective to explain how motivation leads to increased performance and job satisfaction. This is informed by the increased tendency of organizations to seek mechanisms for motivating employees as a means of increasing organizational performance. An extensive review of the key theories of motivation has been undertaken with a focus on the key concepts, applicability and more so the mechanisms through which they lead to increased performance and job satisfaction. Using a case study of Jumeirah Group, the paper assesses the level of employee motivation and undertakes a diagnosis of the motivational strategies employed by the company. Qualitative techniques involving the use of a questionnaire are employed in this paper. The outcomes reveal either lack of a clear motivational theory or an inconclusive application of certain approaches. Much as these recommendations provided in this paper can be generalized, they specify exactly how the theories can be applied to the case of Jumeirah Group.Key Words: motivation, organization, performance, job satisfaction, employeeTable of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc432102903 \h 22.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc432102904 \h 42.1 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RMT) PAGEREF _Toc432102905 \h 52.2 Expectancy Theory of Motivation (ETM) PAGEREF _Toc432102906 \h 62.3 Equity Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102907 \h 82.4 Goal Setting Theory (GST) PAGEREF _Toc432102908 \h 92.5 Maslowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Hierarchy of Needs Theory PAGEREF _Toc432102909 \h 102.6 Theoretical Foundations PAGEREF _Toc432102910 \h 123.0 Analysis and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc432102911 \h 123.1 Research Method PAGEREF _Toc432102912 \h 123.2 Jumeirah Group: Company Overview PAGEREF _Toc432102913 \h 123.3 Jumeirah Group: Organizational Structure PAGEREF _Toc432102914 \h 133.4 Organizational Culture PAGEREF _Toc432102915 \h 143.5 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc432102916 \h 153.6 Diagnosis of Current Situation PAGEREF _Toc432102917 \h 153.7 Reconciling Theory and Practice at Jumeirah Group PAGEREF _Toc432102918 \h 164.0 Recommendations and Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc432102919 \h 164.1 Expectancy Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102920 \h 174.2 Equity Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102921 \h 174.3 Goal Setting Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102922 \h 174.4 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102923 \h 185.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc432102924 \h 18References PAGEREF _Toc432102925 \h 20Appendix 1: Job Motivation Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc432102926 \h 221.0 IntroductionIn the past few decades, there has been intense research to espouse the mechanisms through which motivation influences employee performance and job satisfaction. In this endeavor, researchers have managed to explore an array of mechanisms through which an organizational culture that cherishes employee motivation affects their performance at work and enhances their job satisfaction. Motivation has been found to have a positive correlation with job satisfaction and employee performance (Danish Usman, 2010; Imran et al., 2014; Gerhart Fang, 2015). Given that empirical studies have established a positive correlation between motivation as an aspect of organizational culture, employee performance and motivation, there has been a renewed interest in the institutionalization of motivational practices and models in organizations (Pinder, 2014). This practice is hinged on the fact that much as organizational culture encompasses different facets of an organizational setting, it is essentially a framework that shapes employee behavior through specific mechanisms that can be regulated (Martinez et a.l., 2013). This is what has made it necessary for organizations to adopt certain models of emplo yee motivation as part of their organizational culture in order to make employees replicate behaviors that lead to organizational prosperity (performance) and enhance their job satisfaction. It is important to note that the emphasis on employee motivation by most organizations is due to the perceived positive benefits that accrue from it. Cerasoli et al. (2014) found out that motivation was the most significant factor that determined organizational performance and elaborated that it positively influenced employee performance. In a similar study, Taylor (2014) concluded that employee motivation strategies, especially those that reinforce intrinsic motivation played a key role in enhancing job satisfaction. Years of research on the intricate relationship between employee motivation on one hand and organizational performance and job satisfaction on the other hand have culminated into various models of employee motivation that can be applied differently to different organizational sett ings.The significance of this paper is to explain how various models of employee motivation can be adopted in an organizational setting to improve employee performance and job satisfaction. The key concern of every organization is to ensure that employees perform to their best abilities to optimize the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s proceeds. Employees, on the other hand, seek to achieve job satisfaction through the various avenues available to them, most of which are conditioned by the organizational cultures of their places of work. Most scholars have noted that the selection of the most appropriate model of employee motivation by organizations is a situation that calls for a delicate balance between the model that optimizes organizational performance and one that optimizes employee job satisfaction (Wegge et al, 2015). The most appropriate model of employee motivation is that which strikes a balance between organizational performance and employee motivation. Nevertheless, the most sign ificant factor that influences the model selection as far as a framework for employee motivation is concerned is the type of organizational structure (Miner, 2015). This is hinged on the fact that organizations, just like individuals, are abstract and subjective economic agents and no single model can be most effective for all organizations (O'Neil Drillings, 2012). This paper seeks to explore a variety of models for employee motivation with an emphasis on the specific structures that fit into different organizational settings. Moreover, the paper discusses how such models can be used in their predispositions to enhance organizational performance and job satisfaction. Essentially, what this paper seeks to do is to address the question of how different models can be used to increase employee performance and enhance job satisfaction.To address this question, the paper is organized as follows: the next section of the report undertakes an extensive review of the models and approaches f or employee motivation. In this section, the key concepts in these models will be explained together with the differences in their applicability. Further, a case study of Jumeirah Group, an international luxury hotel chain based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, will be undertaken to assess the functionality of employee motivation models in a practical organizational setting. The case study will focus on the motivational techniques employed in employee motivation at Jumeirah Group and any possible problems the organization might be facing in employee motivation. The outcomes of this case study will inform the rest of the paper since it will seek to provide alternative options for the management of the Jumeirah Group based on the situational factors assessed. The paper will conclude by providing clear recommendations on how the organization can use specific motivational approaches to improve performance and job satisfaction.2.0 Literature ReviewThis section of the report undertakes an extensive review of the models of employee motivation that can be employed to increase performance and enhance job satisfaction. In this section, the key concepts in these models will be explained together with the differences in their applicability. The theories/models that will be reviewed in this section include: * Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RTM) * Expectancy Theory of Motivation (ETM) * Equity Theory of Motivation * Goal Setting Theory * Maslowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Hierarchy of Needs Theory2.1 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RMT)A behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner originally developed this theory as a model to explain motivation based on individual human behavior. The theory, also known as Behavioral Theory or Operant Conditioning, proposes that individuals are most likely to be motivated to perform certain tasks based on certain expected desirable outcomes. The theory is structured in such a manner that the desired outcome à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reinforcesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ the action that results to it while at the same time suppresses the undesired outcomes. A key functional tenet of the theory relies on its failure to take into account the internal states of an individual like attitudes, emotional predisposition and beliefs in trying to provide the mechanisms through which motivation is established. According to Skinner, the external surroundings (rather than the internal) in which an individual lives in is what actually motivates them. Based on this finding, the reinforcement theory of motivation, in its simplest application, proposes that in order to motivate employees, organizations should design the workplace in a manner that appeals to the aesthetic sense of the employees. Reinforcement theory is significant in this report since it provides some mechanisms through which human behavior can be regulated, thus motivation. Its significance in an organizational setting as regards performance and job satisfacti... Theories of Employee Motivation Jumeirah Group - 4125 Words Theories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah Group (Research Paper Sample) Content: Theories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah GroupNameInstitution AffiliationTheories of Employee Motivation: Jumeirah GroupAbstractThis paper sets out to examine the different theories of motivation with an overriding objective to explain how motivation leads to increased performance and job satisfaction. This is informed by the increased tendency of organizations to seek mechanisms for motivating employees as a means of increasing organizational performance. An extensive review of the key theories of motivation has been undertaken with a focus on the key concepts, applicability and more so the mechanisms through which they lead to increased performance and job satisfaction. Using a case study of Jumeirah Group, the paper assesses the level of employee motivation and undertakes a diagnosis of the motivational strategies employed by the company. Qualitative techniques involving the use of a questionnaire are employed in this paper. The outcomes reveal either lack of a clear motivational theory or an inconclusive application of certain approaches. Much as these recommendations provided in this paper can be generalized, they specify exactly how the theories can be applied to the case of Jumeirah Group.Key Words: motivation, organization, performance, job satisfaction, employeeTable of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc432102903 \h 22.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc432102904 \h 42.1 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RMT) PAGEREF _Toc432102905 \h 52.2 Expectancy Theory of Motivation (ETM) PAGEREF _Toc432102906 \h 62.3 Equity Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102907 \h 82.4 Goal Setting Theory (GST) PAGEREF _Toc432102908 \h 92.5 Maslowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Hierarchy of Needs Theory PAGEREF _Toc432102909 \h 102.6 Theoretical Foundations PAGEREF _Toc432102910 \h 123.0 Analysis and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc432102911 \h 123.1 Research Method PAGEREF _Toc432102912 \h 123.2 Jumeirah Group: Company Overview PAGEREF _Toc432102913 \h 123.3 Jumeirah Group: Organizational Structure PAGEREF _Toc432102914 \h 133.4 Organizational Culture PAGEREF _Toc432102915 \h 143.5 Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc432102916 \h 153.6 Diagnosis of Current Situation PAGEREF _Toc432102917 \h 153.7 Reconciling Theory and Practice at Jumeirah Group PAGEREF _Toc432102918 \h 164.0 Recommendations and Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc432102919 \h 164.1 Expectancy Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102920 \h 174.2 Equity Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102921 \h 174.3 Goal Setting Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102922 \h 174.4 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation PAGEREF _Toc432102923 \h 185.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc432102924 \h 18References PAGEREF _Toc432102925 \h 20Appendix 1: Job Motivation Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc432102926 \h 221.0 IntroductionIn the past few decades, there has been intense research to espouse the mechanisms through which motivation influences employee performance and job satisfaction. In this endeavor, researchers have managed to explore an array of mechanisms through which an organizational culture that cherishes employee motivation affects their performance at work and enhances their job satisfaction. Motivation has been found to have a positive correlation with job satisfaction and employee performance (Danish Usman, 2010; Imran et al., 2014; Gerhart Fang, 2015). Given that empirical studies have established a positive correlation between motivation as an aspect of organizational culture, employee performance and motivation, there has been a renewed interest in the institutionalization of motivational practices and models in organizations (Pinder, 2014). This practice is hinged on the fact that much as organizational culture encompasses different facets of an organizational setting, it is essentially a framework that shapes employee behavior through specific mechanisms that can be regulated (Martinez et a.l., 2013). This is what has made it necessary for organizations to adopt certain models of emplo yee motivation as part of their organizational culture in order to make employees replicate behaviors that lead to organizational prosperity (performance) and enhance their job satisfaction. It is important to note that the emphasis on employee motivation by most organizations is due to the perceived positive benefits that accrue from it. Cerasoli et al. (2014) found out that motivation was the most significant factor that determined organizational performance and elaborated that it positively influenced employee performance. In a similar study, Taylor (2014) concluded that employee motivation strategies, especially those that reinforce intrinsic motivation played a key role in enhancing job satisfaction. Years of research on the intricate relationship between employee motivation on one hand and organizational performance and job satisfaction on the other hand have culminated into various models of employee motivation that can be applied differently to different organizational sett ings.The significance of this paper is to explain how various models of employee motivation can be adopted in an organizational setting to improve employee performance and job satisfaction. The key concern of every organization is to ensure that employees perform to their best abilities to optimize the organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s proceeds. Employees, on the other hand, seek to achieve job satisfaction through the various avenues available to them, most of which are conditioned by the organizational cultures of their places of work. Most scholars have noted that the selection of the most appropriate model of employee motivation by organizations is a situation that calls for a delicate balance between the model that optimizes organizational performance and one that optimizes employee job satisfaction (Wegge et al, 2015). The most appropriate model of employee motivation is that which strikes a balance between organizational performance and employee motivation. Nevertheless, the most sign ificant factor that influences the model selection as far as a framework for employee motivation is concerned is the type of organizational structure (Miner, 2015). This is hinged on the fact that organizations, just like individuals, are abstract and subjective economic agents and no single model can be most effective for all organizations (O'Neil Drillings, 2012). This paper seeks to explore a variety of models for employee motivation with an emphasis on the specific structures that fit into different organizational settings. Moreover, the paper discusses how such models can be used in their predispositions to enhance organizational performance and job satisfaction. Essentially, what this paper seeks to do is to address the question of how different models can be used to increase employee performance and enhance job satisfaction.To address this question, the paper is organized as follows: the next section of the report undertakes an extensive review of the models and approaches f or employee motivation. In this section, the key concepts in these models will be explained together with the differences in their applicability. Further, a case study of Jumeirah Group, an international luxury hotel chain based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, will be undertaken to assess the functionality of employee motivation models in a practical organizational setting. The case study will focus on the motivational techniques employed in employee motivation at Jumeirah Group and any possible problems the organization might be facing in employee motivation. The outcomes of this case study will inform the rest of the paper since it will seek to provide alternative options for the management of the Jumeirah Group based on the situational factors assessed. The paper will conclude by providing clear recommendations on how the organization can use specific motivational approaches to improve performance and job satisfaction.2.0 Literature ReviewThis section of the report undertakes an extensive review of the models of employee motivation that can be employed to increase performance and enhance job satisfaction. In this section, the key concepts in these models will be explained together with the differences in their applicability. The theories/models that will be reviewed in this section include: * Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RTM) * Expectancy Theory of Motivation (ETM) * Equity Theory of Motivation * Goal Setting Theory * Maslowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Hierarchy of Needs Theory2.1 Reinforcement Theory of Motivation (RMT)A behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner originally developed this theory as a model to explain motivation based on individual human behavior. The theory, also known as Behavioral Theory or Operant Conditioning, proposes that individuals are most likely to be motivated to perform certain tasks based on certain expected desirable outcomes. The theory is structured in such a manner that the desired outcome à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"reinforcesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ the action that results to it while at the same time suppresses the undesired outcomes. A key functional tenet of the theory relies on its failure to take into account the internal states of an individual like attitudes, emotional predisposition and beliefs in trying to provide the mechanisms through which motivation is established. According to Skinner, the external surroundings (rather than the internal) in which an individual lives in is what actually motivates them. Based on this finding, the reinforcement theory of motivation, in its simplest application, proposes that in order to motivate employees, organizations should design the workplace in a manner that appeals to the aesthetic sense of the employees. Reinforcement theory is significant in this report since it provides some mechanisms through which human behavior can be regulated, thus motivation. Its significance in an organizational setting as regards performance and job satisfacti...

Saturday, May 23, 2020

John D. Rockefeller, Americas First Billionaire

John D. Rockefeller (July 8, 1839–May 23, 1937) was an astute businessman who became America’s first billionaire in 1916. In 1870, Rockefeller founded Standard Oil Company, which eventually became a domineering monopoly in the oil industry. Rockefeller’s leadership in Standard Oil brought him great wealth as well as controversy, as many opposed Rockefeller’s business practices. Standard Oil’s nearly complete monopoly of the industry was eventually brought to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in 1911 that Rockefeller’s titanic trust should be dismantled. Though many disapproved of Rockefeller’s professional ethics, few could devalue his substantial philanthropic endeavors, which led to him to donate $540 million (more than $5 billion today) during his lifetime to humanitarian and charitable causes. Fast Facts: John D. Rockefeller Known For: Founder of Standard Oil and Americas first billionaireBorn: July 8, 1839 in Richford, New YorkParents: William â€Å"Big Bill† Rockefeller and Eliza (Davison) RockefellerDied: May 23, 1937 in Cleveland, OhioEducation: Folsom Mercantile CollegePublished Works: Random Reminiscences of Men and EventsSpouse: Laura Celestia â€Å"Cettie† SpelmanChildren: Elizabeth (Bessie), Alice (who died in infancy), Alta, Edith, John D. Rockefeller, Jr.Notable Quote: I was early taught to work as well as play, My life has been one long, happy holiday; Full of work and full of play—I dropped the worry on the way—and God was good to me every day. Early Years John Davison Rockefeller was born on July 8, 1839, in Richford, New York. He was the second of six children born to William â€Å"Big Bill† Rockefeller and Eliza (Davison) Rockefeller. William Rockefeller was a traveling salesman peddling his questionable wares across the country. As such, he was often absent from the home. John D. Rockefeller’s mother essentially raised the family on her own and managed their holdings, never knowing that her husband, under the name of Dr. William Levingston, had a second wife in New York. In 1853, â€Å"Big Bill† moved the Rockefeller family to Cleveland, Ohio, where Rockefeller attended Central High School. Rockefeller also joined the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church in Cleveland, of which he would remain a long-time active member. It was under his mother’s tutelage that the young John learned the value of religious devotion and charitable giving, virtues he practiced regularly throughout his life. In 1855, Rockefeller dropped out of high school to enter Folsom Mercantile College. After completing the business course in three months, 16-year-old Rockefeller secured a bookkeeping position with Hewitt Tuttle, a commission merchant and produce shipper. Early Years in Business It didn’t take long for John D. Rockefeller to develop a reputation as an astute businessman: hardworking, thorough, precise, composed, and adverse to risk-taking. Meticulous in every detail, especially with finances (he even kept detailed ledgers of his personal expenditures from the time he was 16), Rockefeller was able to save $1,000 in four years from his bookkeeping job. In 1859, Rockefeller added this money to a $1,000 loan from his father in order to invest in his own commission merchant partnership with Maurice B. Clark, a former Folsom Mercantile College classmate. Four years later, Rockefeller and Clark expanded into the regionally booming oil refinery business with a new partner, chemist Samuel Andrews, who had built a refinery but knew little about business and the transporting of goods. However, by 1865, the partners, which numbered five including Maurice Clark’s two brothers, were in disagreement about the management and direction of their business, so they agreed to sell the business to the highest bidder amongst them. The 25-year-old Rockefeller won it with a bid of $72,500 and, with Andrews as a partner, formed Rockefeller Andrews. In short order, Rockefeller studied the nascent oil business in earnest and became savvy in its dealings. Rockefeller’s company started small but soon merged with O.H. Payne, a large Cleveland refinery owner, and then with others as well. With his company growing, Rockefeller brought his brother (William) and Andrews’ brother (John) into the company. In 1866, Rockefeller noted that 70% of refined oil was being shipped to overseas markets. Rockefeller set up an office in New York City to cut out the middleman, a practice he would use repeatedly to cut expenses and increase profits. A year later, Henry M. Flagler joined the group and the company was renamed Rockefeller, Andrews, Flagler. As the business continued to succeed, the enterprise was incorporated as the Standard Oil Company on January 10, 1870, with John D. Rockefeller as its president. The Standard Oil Monopoly John D. Rockefeller and his partners in the Standard Oil Company were rich men, but they strove for even greater success. In 1871, Standard Oil, a few other large refineries, and major railroads secretly joined together in a holding company called the South Improvement Company (SIC). The SIC gave transportation discounts (â€Å"rebates†) to the large refineries that were part of their alliance but then charged the smaller, independent oil refineries more money (â€Å"drawbacks†) to shuttle their goods along the railroad. This was a blatant attempt to economically destroy those smaller refineries and it worked. In the end, many businesses succumbed to these aggressive practices; Rockefeller then bought out those competitors. As a result, Standard Oil obtained 20 Cleveland companies in one month in 1872. This event became known as â€Å"The Cleveland Massacre,† ending the competitive oil business in the city and claiming 25% of the country’s oil for Standard Oil Company. It also created a backlash of public contempt, with the media dubbing the organization â€Å"an octopus.† In April 1872, the SIC was disbanded per the Pennsylvania legislature but Standard Oil was already on its way to becoming a monopoly. A year later, Rockefeller expanded into New York and Pennsylvania with refineries, eventually controlling nearly half of the Pittsburgh oil business. The company continued to grow and consume independent refineries to the point that Standard Oil Company commanded 90% of America’s oil production by 1879. In January 1882, the Standard Oil Trust was formed with 40 separate corporations under its umbrella. To increase the financial gain from the business, Rockefeller eliminated middlemen like purchasing agents and wholesalers. He began manufacturing the barrels and cans needed to store the company’s oil.  Rockefeller also developed plants that produced petroleum byproducts like petroleum jelly, machine lubricants, chemical cleaners, and paraffin wax. Ultimately, the arms of the Standard Oil Trust eradicated the need for outsourcing entirely, which devastated existing industries in the process. Marriage and Children On September 8, 1864, John D. Rockefeller married the valedictorian of his high school class (though Rockefeller did not actually graduate). Laura Celestia â€Å"Cettie† Spelman, an assistant principal at the time of their marriage, was a college-educated daughter of a successful Cleveland businessman. Like her new husband, Cettie was also a devoted supporter of her church and like her parents, upheld the temperance and abolition movements. Rockefeller valued and often consulted his bright and independently-minded wife about business manners. Between 1866 and 1874, the couple had five children: Elizabeth (Bessie), Alice (who died in infancy), Alta, Edith, and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. With the family growing, Rockefeller bought a large house on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, which became known as â€Å"Millionaire’s Row.† By 1880, they also purchased a summer home overlooking Lake Erie; Forest Hill, as it was called, became a favorite home of the Rockefellers. Four years later, because Rockefeller was doing more business in New York City and did not like being away from his family, the Rockefellers acquired yet another house. His wife and children would travel each fall to the city and stay for the winter months in the family’s large brownstone on West 54th Street. Later in life after the children were grown and grandchildren came, the Rockefellers built a house in Pocantico Hills, New York, a few miles north of Manhattan. They celebrated their golden anniversary there but during the following spring in 1915, Laura â€Å"Cettie† Rockefeller passed away at age 75. Media and Legal Woes John D. Rockefeller’s name had first been associated with ruthless business practices with the Cleveland Massacre, but after a 19-part serial exposà © by Ida Tarbell titled History of Standard Oil Company, started appearing in McClure’s Magazine in November 1902, his public reputation was proclaimed to be one of greed and corruption. Tarbell’s skillful narrative exposed all elements of the oil giant’s efforts to squash competition and of Standard Oil’s overbearing domination of the industry. The installments were later published as a book of the same name and quickly became a bestseller. With this spotlight on its business practices, the Standard Oil Trust was attacked by state and federal courts as well as by the media. In 1890, the Sherman Antitrust Act was passed as the first federal antitrust legislation to limit monopolies. Sixteen years later, the U.S. attorney general during President Teddy Roosevelt’s administration filed two dozen antitrust actions against large corporations; chief among  them was Standard Oil. It took five years, but in 1911, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the lower court’s decision that ordered Standard Oil Trust to divest into 33 companies, which would function independently from each other. However, Rockefeller did not suffer. Because he was a major stockholder, his net worth grew exponentially with the dissolution and establishment of new business entities. Rockefeller as Philanthropist John D. Rockefeller was one of the wealthiest men in the world during his lifetime. Though a tycoon, he lived unpretentiously and kept a low social profile, rarely attending the theatre or other events typically attended by his peers. Since childhood, he had been trained to give to church and charity and Rockefeller had routinely done so. However, with a fortune believed to be worth more than a billion dollars after the dissolution of Standard Oil and a tarnished public image to rectify, John D. Rockefeller began to give away millions of dollars. In 1896, 57-year-old Rockefeller turned over the day-to-day leadership of Standard Oil, though he held the title of president until 1911, and began to focus on philanthropy. He had already contributed to the establishment of the University of Chicago in 1890, giving $35 million over the course of 20 years. While doing so, Rockefeller had acquired confidence in Rev. Frederick T. Gates, the director of the American Baptist Education Society, which established the university. With Gates as his investment manager and philanthropic adviser, John D. Rockefeller founded the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York in 1901. Within their laboratories, causes, cures, and various manners of prevention of diseases were discovered, including the cure for meningitis and the identification of DNA as the central genetic matter. A year later, Rockefeller established the General Education Board. In its 63 years of operation, it distributed $325 million to American schools and colleges. In 1909, Rockefeller launched a public health program in the effort to prevent and cure hookworm, a serious health issue in the southern states, through the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission. In 1913, Rockefeller created the Rockefeller Foundation, with his son John Jr. as president and Gates as a trustee, to foster the well-being of men and women around the world. In its first year, Rockefeller donated $100 million to the foundation, which has provided assistance to medical research and education, public health initiatives, scientific advancements, social research, the arts, and other fields around the world. A decade later, the Rockefeller Foundation was the largest grant-making foundation in the world and its founder deemed the most generous philanthropist in U.S. history. Death Along with donating his fortune, John D. Rockefeller spent his last years enjoying his children, grandchildren, and his hobby of landscaping and gardening. He was also an avid golfer. Rockefeller hoped to live to be a centenarian but died two years before the occasion on May 23, 1937. He was laid to rest between his beloved wife and mother at Lakeview Cemetery in Cleveland, Ohio. Legacy Though many Americans scorned Rockefeller for making his Standard Oil fortune through unscrupulous business tactics, its profits aided the world. Through John D. Rockefeller’s philanthropic endeavors, the oil titan educated and saved an untold number of lives and aided medical and scientific advancement. Rockefeller also forever changed the landscape of American business. Sources â€Å"John D. Rockefeller: The Ultimate Oil Man.† John D. Rockefeller: The Ultimate Oil Man.â€Å"John D. Rockefeller.† Biography.com, AE Networks Television, 16 Jan. 2019.The Rockefeller Archive Center.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee - 1759 Words

Based on the first six chapter of the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, we can see that it moves at a rapid pace. It starts off as the beginning of summer and by the end of the sixth chapter an entire year has passed by. Throughout this year, we see Scout s, Dill s, and Jem s adventures during the summers and Scout going to school for the first time. We also receive some additional background information on the mysterious Arthur Boo Radley. After reading this section of the book, if I could ask the author a question, I would ask her How does Atticus parenting style contribute to the development of the plot?. I would ask her this question because based off what I have read thus far the novel shows Atticus to be a man about equality and justice and he seeks to instill these virtues and values in his children. This makes me wonder why the author chose this parenting style and if it has something to do with the future development of the plot and if this parenting style will pay off in times of conflict within the novel considering the day and age the novel is taking place in. In my opinion, a significant character in the novel is Jean Louise Scout Finch. Scout is the protagonist and narrator of the story. She is an intelligent young girl and is what our society would refer to as a tomboy. Scout seems to have a basic faith in the goodness of the people in her community. Considering Scout is the main character in the story, she will have a large contribution to theShow MoreRelatedKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1049 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: How a Story could be based on True Events in Everyday LifeDaisy GaskinsCoastal Pines Technical Collegeâ€Æ'Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama. Her father was a former newspaper editor and proprietor, who had served as a state senator and practiced as a lawyer in Monroeville. Also Finch was known as the maiden name of Lee’s mother. With that being said Harper Lee became a writer like her father, but she became a American writer, famous for her race relations novel â€Å"ToRead MoreT o Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee1000 Words   |  4 Pagesworld-wide recognition to the many faces of prejudice is an accomplishment of its own. Author Harper Lee has had the honor to accomplish just that through her novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, a moving and inspirational story about a young girl learning the difference between the good and the bad of the world. In the small town of Monroeville, Alabama, Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. Growing up, Harper Lee had three siblings: two sisters and an older brother. She and her siblings grew up modestlyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1290 Words   |  6 PagesHarper Lee published To Kill a Mockingbird during a rough period in American history, also known as the Civil Rights Movement. This plot dives into the social issues faced by African-Americans in the south, like Tom Robinson. Lee felt that the unfair treatment towards blacks were persistent, not coming to an end any time in the foreseeable future. This dar k movement drove her to publish this novel hopeful that it would encourage the society to realize that the harsh racism must stop. Lee effectivelyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee873 Words   |  4 PagesIn the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee illustrates that â€Å"it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird† throughout the novel by writing innocent characters that have been harmed by evil. Tom Robinson’s persecution is a symbol for the death of a mockingbird. The hunters shooting the bird would in this case be the Maycomb County folk. Lee sets the time in the story in the early 1950s, when the Great Depression was going on and there was poverty everywhere. The mindset of people back then was that blackRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee963 Words   |  4 Pagesgrowing up, when older characters give advice to children or siblings.Growing up is used frequently in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Harper Lee uses the theme growing up in To Kill a Mockingbird to change characters opinion, develop characters through their world, and utilizes prejudice to reveal growing up. One major cause growing up is used in To Kill a Mockingbird is to represent a change of opinion. One part growing up was shown in is through the trial in part two of the novelRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1052 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee takes place in Maycomb County, Alabama in the late 30s early 40s , after the great depression when poverty and unemployment were widespread throughout the United States. Why is the preconception of racism, discrimination, and antagonism so highly related to some of the characters in this book? People often have a preconceived idea or are biased about one’s decision to live, dress, or talk. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee examines the preconceptionRead MoreHarper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird931 Words   |  4 PagesHarper Lee and her Works Harper Lee knew first hand about the life in the south in the 1930s. She was born in Monroeville, Alabama in 1926 (Castleman 2). Harper Lee was described by one of her friends as Queen of the Tomboys (Castleman 3). Scout Finch, the main character of Lees Novel, To Kill a Mockinbird, was also a tomboy. Many aspects of To Kill a Mockingbird are autobiographical (Castleman 3). Harper Lees parents were Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Finch Lee. She was the youngestRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1695 Words   |  7 PagesIn To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee presents as a ‘tired old town’ where the inhabitants have ‘nowhere to go’ it is set in the 1930s when prejudices and racism were at a peak. Lee uses Maycomb town to highlight prejudices, racism, poverty and social inequality. In chapter 2 Lee presents the town of Maycomb to be poverty stricken, emphasised through the characterisation of Walter Cunningham. When it is discovered he has no lunch on the first day of school, Scout tries to explain the situation to MissRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1876 Words   |  8 PagesThough Harper Lee only published two novels, her accomplishments are abundant. Throughout her career Lee claimed: the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Goodreads Choice Awards Best Fiction, and Quill Award for Audio Book. Lee was also inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters. This honor society is a huge accomplishment and is considered the highest recognition for artistic talent and accomplishment in the United States. Along with these accomplishments, herRead MoreKill A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee1197 Words   |  5 Pagessuch as crops, houses, and land, and money was awfully limited. These conflicts construct Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mocking Bird. In To Kill a Mocking Bird, Lee establishes the concurrence of good and evil, meaning whether people are naturally good or naturally evil. Lee uses symbolism, characterization, and plot to portray the instinctive of good and evil. To Kill a Mocking Bird, a novel by Harper Lee takes place during the 1930s in the Southern United States. The protagonist, Scout Finch,

Monday, May 11, 2020

The Leadership Styles And Behavioral Analysis - 1532 Words

â€Å"Let us not seek the Republican answer or the Democratic answer but the right answer. Let us not seek to fix the blame for the past—let us accept our own responsibility for the future† -John F. Kennedy, 35th US President. This paper describes about the Leadership styles and Behavioral analysis of former U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Elected in 1960 as the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy was the youngest man to hold that office. He was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts to Joseph P. Kennedy, a self-made multimillionaire who led the Exchange commission and securities under Franklin D. Roosevelt and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. He parlayed an elite education and a reputation as a military hero for his successful run into congress in 1946. His entrance into politics surprised his college mates. He never enjoyed campaigning, but was elected, and won the Senate in 1952. He served in both the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate before becoming the 35th president in 1961. After earning his party’s nomination for vice president in 1956, he announced his candidacy for president on January 2, 1960. Kennedy outmaneuvered his main opponent, Hubert Humphrey with superior organizations and financial resources, Selecting Senate majority leader, Lyndon Johnson of Texas, as his running mate. He faced Vice President Richard Nixon in the general election. Kennedy faced difficulties against him. He was benefited fromShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Styles And Behavioral Analysis1687 Words   |  7 PagesRepublican answer or the Democratic answer but the right answer. Let us not seek to fix the blame for the past—let us accept our own responsibility for the future† -John F. Kennedy, 35th US President. This paper describes about the Leadership styles and Behavioral analysis of former U.S. president John F. Kennedy. Elected in 1960 as the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy was the youngest man to hold that office. He was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts to Joseph PRead MoreStrength, Personality, and Behavioral Style Assessments Motivation1466 Words   |  6 PagesStrength, Personality, and Behavioral Style Assessments Motivation In my paper regarding Strength Finder 2.0 assessment (Rath) I came to understand how valuable various assessments are in the development of my leadership abilities. About a year ago I took the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator assessment (The Myers Briggs Foundation); I was identified as an ENTJ and ENFJ (split personality). I recently took another assessment dealing with my behavioral style (Style Analysis). The strength finder 2Read MoreLeadership : The New Ceo Of A Executive Team1300 Words   |  6 PagesLeadership Leaders are conceptual thinkers and must think in the abstract. Decisions made by leaders are non-programmed decisions, which have never been made before, in respect to the direction in which the leader intends to take the organization into the future. The leader is hired by the Board of Directors (BOD) to maximize the wealth of the stockholders whom they represent. The leaders planning horizon is generally three years and beyond, depending on the employment contract signed. The BODRead MoreLeading Organizational Change : Tragedy Or Transformation1287 Words   |  6 PagesLeading Organizational Change Cornelius Cash Grand Canyon University LDR825-Organizational Change: Tragedy or Transformation August 10, 2016 Leadership Leaders are conceptual thinkers and must think in the abstract. Decisions made by leaders are non-programmed decisions, which have never been made before, in respect to the direction in which the leader intends to take the organization into the future. The leader is hired by the Board of Directors (BOD) to maximize the wealth of the stockholdersRead MoreLeading Organizational Change : Tragedy Or Transformation1294 Words   |  6 Pages Leading Organizational Change Cornelius Cash Grand Canyon University LDR825-Organizational Change: Tragedy or Transformation August 10, 2016 Leadership Leaders are conceptual thinkers and must think in the abstract. Decisions made by leaders are non-programmed decisions, which have never been made before, regarding the direction in which the leader will take the organization. The leader is hired by the Board of Directors to maximize the wealth of the stockholders whom they representRead MoreWhat Makes A Good Leader?1338 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of Leadership Theories The topic of leadership and what makes a good leader has been studied for many years and has resulted in various leadership theories. Early leadership theories focused on the qualities or characteristic that leaders possessed while subsequent theories considered other variables such as the leader’s behavior and situations. Each theory has its advantages and disadvantages. In this report, I will provide a detailed analysis of the Trait, Contingency, Behavioral andRead MoreEvaluation Of An Authority- Compliance ( 91 ) On The Leadership Grid1202 Words   |  5 PagesYoung?s behavioral perspective would be describe as an authority- compliance (9,1) on the Leadership Grid. According to Northouse, authority ?compliance is an all task approach that is not reasonable when changing the painting department at the hospital. Young?s new behavioral perspective is now Team management (9,9) on the Leadership Grid. Team management is refers as a leader who is ? stimulates participation, act s determined, gets issues out the open, makes priorities clear, follow through, behavesRead MoreBehavioral Leadership With Contingency, Transformational, And Transactional Leadership Models Essay1345 Words   |  6 Pagesthe trait of behavioral leadership with contingency, transformational, and transactional leadership models. Leadership is an art to influence subordinates in such a way that they voluntarily and willingly do the pre-specified amount of work in terms of specific objectives. Leadership includes effect and change and it is the art of managing people with others (Afjeh, 2006). There are four kinds of leadership that behavioral, contingency, transformational, and transactional leadership. This essay willRead MoreA Leader Of Mine By George Washington1447 Words   |  6 Pagesand weaknesses as a leader by providing detailed examples based off of my perspective. It will relate my leadership ability to my personality and go into describing how my leadership relates to the Trait Approach, Skills, Approach, Behavioral Approach, Situational Approach, and Psychodynamic Approach. Further explaining how each of these leadership approaches is integrated to define leadership and how an individual is a leader through personal qualities and how they influence others to impact organizationsRead MoreLeadership And Strategy : Diane Hunt Wagner1429 Words   |  6 Pages Leadership and Strategy Sasha Kochen MGT/521 October 16, 2016 diane Hunt-Wagner Leadership and Strategy There is a great importance put on business leadership, this is directly due to how a business not only functions but in how fruitful the company can become. A great leader essentially can take a business plan that is weak yet turn it into a success, whereas a poor leader stands a higher chance of ruining the best of business plans. That is why it is essential to develop effective

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

There Is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research - 1027 Words

There is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research To agree with the statement â€Å"There is no hope of doing perfect research† (Griffith, 1998, p97) is to accept that humanity is doomed. There are two extreme phrases used in this context which are the words â€Å"perfect† and â€Å"no hope† that can incite argument among scholars, scientists, writers, academe people and even ordinary folks. Perfect is being entirely without fault or defect (Merriam-webster.com). Referring to research as perfect reflects the results of the human activity. In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge (Experiment-resources.com). However, human nature is defined as an†¦show more content†¦But the fact that the researches from these men have reached their goals in their time and have become the basis for other researches is evidence that they are on their own considered as perfect. Let’s just face the fact that there are a lot of things in this world that can’t be grasped at once by men in a single life time. Some may take hundreds of years to be perfected. There are also things such as human related studies that can never achieve perfection as they are chaperoned with the variable called change. In these subjects and topics, this famous quotation by George Fisher would likely apply: â€Å"When you aim for perfection, you discover it’s a moving target†. As much as there are flawed researches throughout history, the list for perfect researches is also endless. Science theories and facts produced by series of studies and investigations by great minds from the past have stood the test of time, accepted as fact by humanity and have been taught in schools passing to the next generations the exploits of great minds from history with hope that humanity can use them for greater gain. Researches are hardly perfected but let us not settle that there is no hope for it. Works Cited â€Å"Perfect†. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary. 2012. An Encyclopedia Britannica Company. Web. 3 Aug. 2012. http://www.merriam-webster.com /dictionary/perfect. â€Å"Research†. Experiment-resources.com. 2012. Web. 3 Aug. 2012.Show MoreRelatedNo Hope in Doing Perfect Research1017 Words   |  5 PagesPage 1 of 3 Get your projects done. 10/29/10 - No hope of doing perfect research www.projectguru.in Call: +919873147443 Mailto: care@projectguru.in Topic: There is no hope of doing perfect research (Griffith, 1998, p97). Do you agree?- A discussion with detailed reference to at least two examples of my research done in schools that I have been studying. Research as the name suggests, means that re- searching. It denotes the process of searching for something whose search has already beenRead MoreThere is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research Essay802 Words   |  4 PagesTo answer the question of whether there can be such a thing as perfect research we would have to consider the research methodologies employed and how the research question is formulated and presented. The human mind is complex and in its complexity dwells room for misunderstanding and the propensity to err, so as long as the human mind is engaged in research, there can be no such thing as flawless research. To make research as near to perfection as possible it is important to look at the designRead MoreThere is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research Essay examples937 Words   |  4 Pageslooking at research and perfect research. Conceptually, these two are oxymoron. Research is done to understand the unknown or clear doubts about the known. Perfect research is possible only when you have the full knowledge of the subject of investigation so have no room for mistakes or bias in planning, formulating, and executing the research and drawing conclusions from it. If you know everything about the subject and have no doubt about it, then there is no need for perfect research. OperationallyRead MoreThere Is No Hope of Doing Perfect Research† (Griffiths, 1998, P97). Do You Agree?1053 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"There is no hope of doing perfect research† (Griffiths, 1998, p97). Do you agree? The statement by Griffiths (1998) that there is no hope in doing perfect research (97) has raised a few eyebrows and has become a highly controversial issue over the past decade. Reading and Writing sources (2010) defines research as a systematic examination to obtain facts. According to this definition, research is obtaining accurate, reliable information, with the use of a method. Now, how do we define accuracyRead MoreA Research Experiment On Animal Research1353 Words   |  6 Pagesthoughts right now? The cure or the animal? That cure you need for your child s’ illness was tested on animals in a biomedical research experiment. Hearing this might change someone s mind about animal research. Most people would choose the cure for their child and forget about the animal. The process of biomedical animal research is beneficial to the process of medical research and should be used in the experimental process. Animals themselves are very similar to humans both physically and mentallyRead MorePerfect Research Essay876 Words   |  4 PagesThere is no hope of doing perfect research (Griffiths, 1998, p97), do you agree? Before attempting to answer this question, it is important to look at the definition and the meaning of research. According to the scholar Cresswell, â€Å"research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue†(3). Cambridge online dictionary defines research is â€Å"a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a (new)Read MoreThe Summary of the Best War Ever: America and World War Ii730 Words   |  3 Pageswith the research. Research is the key element behind any type of evolution and progress. Contemporary, broadly established theories, varying from the understanding of the universe to the revelation of human evolution, are the result of valuable innova tions in different fields of science and technology. Every day life has been simplified due to the constant advance of knowledge and discoveries. However, none of this would be possible without constant research. Therefore, and since research is vitalRead MoreThe Importance Of A Foreign Country Has Changed My Life1057 Words   |  5 Pagesneeds. Yet, I didn’t just want to go to abroad for a few weeks, I wanted to study abroad for an entire semester. I wanted to immerse myself in an unfamiliar culture. To let go of what I know here and observe from their perspective. Through my program I hope to appreciate the diversity another country has to offer. In spring 2017, I plan to travel to Thailand and participate in study abroad program through CISabroad. The program runs for an entire semester. I will be taking classes at Mahidol UniversityRead More Body Image Essay1153 Words   |  5 Pagesand â€Å"4 Ab Mistakes Everyone Makes.† It is no secret that modern American culture gives great importance to body image, namely to having a â€Å"perfect† physique, although a vast majority of the population is far from attaining said physique. I struggled for years to â€Å"make peace† with my own body and obtain a positive body image, hence why I have chosen to research body image and the media, focusing more on the female aspect of it. With so much attention being given to people’s perceptions of their ownRead MoreI Had An Intersex Child1495 Words   |  6 Pagesand which ones aren’t. Furthermore, there is no way to tell or control whether our world will accept or reject my intersex child, but I can control and influence what happens in my home and within my family. This isn’t to say that I would be the perfect parent because there is no such thing. You can’t go through the process of parenthood (or life for that matter) without making a plethora of mistakes that not only affect you, but those who are in your life. This being said, I wouldn’t want some of

Nationwide Public Health Care in US The Argument Free Essays

The right to preserve the mental and physical well-being of a person is inherent to his right to live.   All over the world, this right has been protected and established as one of the basic human rights.   However, there is a disparity among nations on how it is enforced, with most of the developed world having a universal health care system provided to everyone regardless of their ability to pay (Healthcare, par. We will write a custom essay sample on Nationwide Public Health Care in US: The Argument or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2).   The United States is one of those countries in the developed world which does not have a national healthcare system, but rather, healthcare is provided by many separate legal entities (Healthcare in the United States, par. 1). Many critics of the system have described it as inefficient and ineffective. According to the Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP), the current U.S. healthcare system is â€Å"outrageously expensive, yet inadequate.† (Single-Payer National Health Insurance, par. 2)   The U.S. spends more than twice as much as other developed nations at $7,129 per capita, yet it only ranks 37th out of 191 countries according to its healthcare performance in a World Health Organization (WHO) report in 2000. Where is all the money going to?   The U.S. system is a mixed system where private and public insurers coexist.   Still, according to PNHP, private insurers waste healthcare dollars on things not involving care: â€Å"overhead, underwriting, billing, sales and marketing departments as well as huge profits and exorbitant executive pay.†   Additionally, doctors and hospitals must maintain administrative staff to deal with the bureaucracy.   Combined, this accounts for 31 percent of American’s health dollars (Single-Payer National Health Insurance, par. 3) Just by looking at the numbers it seems there should be no debate on establishing a national healthcare system in the U.S., but in fact the argument rages on in the halls of national politics.   There are still several criticisms against a national health care program, mostly stemming from the fact that Americans, by and large, have a tradition of capitalism and for-profit enterprises have most of the time had their way. Cited criticisms include the old adage that introducing the free market into anything, including healthcare, will drive prices and costs down. In fact, the opposite is currently proving true.   The excess payments for care in private for-profit institutions were substantial: 19%. (Himmelstein and Woolhandler, 1814).   The standard â€Å"free market† and does not apply to the healthcare system, where competition is often absent in some areas, and where the average person is very much in the dark on evaluating the â€Å"product† of healthcare.   Add to it the unique inefficiency of the U.S. government insuring 27.3% of the population and so we have them paying these for-profit hospitals a premium on what they could do much more efficiently themselves. Likewise, private insurance have to pay significant overhead, with these costs trickling down to the individual consumer.   Under a single payer system, it is estimated that the overall savings in paperwork would amount to more than $350 billion a year, enough to provide comprehensive coverage to everyone without paying more than we actually do. (Single-Payer National Health Insurance, par. 4) In my case, this mix of private and public insurance makes me and my spouse concerned over our future rates.   Both of us are self-employed, and so have to purchase private health insurance coverage for us and for our two children.   Instead of a nationwide security system that would protect us from the costs of rising rates, I am faced with the fear that, if we make too many claims, our rates could potentially skyrocket that we could no longer afford to carry it. As compared to a country like France, which has the best healthcare in the world according to the WHO (WHO Assesses, par. 1), we are wallowing in a system that is grossly inefficient, especially considering the huge cost we pay for our health compared to these nations.   The existence of organizations like the PNHP shows that there is widespread support among physicians in the country for a universal healthcare system that will protect the right of every American to live his or her life to the fullest.   Implementing a single-payer healthcare system would not only mean better health services for Americans, it will also drive down costs (How Much would a Single-Payer System Cost, par. 1), saving money for the government, and ultimately saving our own money. R E F E R E N C E â€Å"Single-Payer National Health Insurance†. Physicians for a National Health Program. 2006. 12 June 2007. ; http://www.pnhp.org/facts/single_payer_resources.php; Introduction: How Much Would a Single-Payer System Cost?†. Physicians for a National Health Program. 2006. 12 June 2007. http://www.pnhp.org/single_payer_resources/ introduction_how_much_would_a_singlepayer_system_cost.php â€Å"Healthcare.† Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. 12 June 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_care â€Å"Healthcare in the United States.† Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 12 June 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_care_in_the_United_States Himmelstein, David and Woolhandler, Steffie. â€Å"The High Costs of For-Profit Care.† Canadian Medical Association Journal. 8 June 2004. 1814-1815. How to cite Nationwide Public Health Care in US: The Argument, Essay examples

Online Store Case Study

Question: You have recently joined an online organization as E-Business Reseacher who has been contracted to analyse the business model of a medium-large sized B2C company (with an online presence) in the retail or services sector, and present your case study to the board of directors. In order to complete this task you need to: Select an appropriate e-commerce company Visit its Web site and analyse its business model based on the information you find there. The report should include the following : A brief overview of the organisation in question The Importance of an effective business model The technical requirements for the successful adoption of E-Commerce The eight key components of an effective business model 1. Value proposition2. Revenue model3. Market opportunity 4. Competitive environment 5. Competitive advantage 6. Market strategy 7. Organizational development 8. Management team Answer: Item Range offered by Company-Online Car Accessories and Tools of different sorts Leisure items for sailing, outdoors Electrical Household machines for any sort of usgae Appropriation Center Appropriation focus had two decisions in the middle of Australia and Asia. The previous was picked by the organization and the district. The consortium needs to create another organization and has built up the accompanying framework of its operations. In general, SCM innovation development proceeds, with utilitarian frameworks, for example, transportation and interest arranging, keeping on being created and upgraded to backing practical execution increments. New abilities are advancing in innovation territories that exploit in-memory/ fast diagnostic transforming, greatly huge datasets and cloud-based stages (giving framework flexibility and simpler mix/onboarding capacities). A blend of these abilities is likewise advancing to bolster a more multi endeavor perspective and administration of store network business forms. Sellers predominant in developed advancements are tested with staying present and applicable. In a few zones, they may be supplanted by new, more inventive sellers in usefulness and/or organization alternatives. (Rajasree K. Rajamma, 2007) In general, SCM innovation development proceeds, with utilitarian frameworks, for example, transportation and interest arranging, keeping on being created and upgraded to backing practical execution increments. New abilities are advancing in innovation territories that exploit in-memory/ fast diagnostic transforming, greatly huge datasets and cloud-based stages (giving framework flexibility and simpler mix/onboarding capacities). A blend of these abilities is likewise advancing to bolster a more multi endeavor perspective and administration of store network business forms. Sellers predominant in developed advancements are tested with staying present and applicable. In a few zones, they may be supplanted by new, more inventive sellers in usefulness and/or organization alternatives. (Rajasree K. Rajamma, 2007) Sourcing We find that end clients are getting to be more educated in the screening and determination of SCM advances. Applying pace layering as a way to deal with dissect process development necessities (and, hence, business esteem), and additionally connecting this to the kind of innovation and sourcing alternatives, is beginning to pick up footing with our customers (there's all the more on pace layering in the Hype Cycle segment). The utilization of pace layering in SCM that is connected to process development models is ended up being an extremely helpful structure to help explore the SCM innovation market. The clarity of the potential business case, and in addition the related business techniques and capabilities needed to completely influence the innovation, are having more huge impact in helping organizations comprehend if and when they ought to contribute, and from where they ought to source the innovation. Nonetheless, store network pioneers are outpacing others. There is an enlarging crevice in the middle of pioneers and devotees, with the pioneers being more hazard tolerant and years in front of adherents in considering fresher advances. (Jayant Anand, 2009) Request Volatility and logistics As far as key deterrents in accomplishing store network objectives, conjecture exactness/request unpredictability is still No. 1, as it has been for as long as couple of years. There are two sides to this. The main is the persistent commute to get closer to the end purchaser, improving intermediary for the genuine interest flag, and utilizing this to drive back through whatever is left of the inventory network to adjust and synchronize. The second is making a beneficial supply reaction to these interest signs. This angle is frequently to some degree neglected in an organization's longing to make steadily exact and definite estimates. Inventory network pioneers perceive that enhancing the nature of the interest sign is basic, however their capacity to react productivity to these interest signs is additionally imperative, perceiving that, as a rule, there will be critical lingering interest unpredictability. Reacting to the client could be attained to with expense overwhelms, exorbitan t stock and "firefighting," yet reacting gainfully means understanding the wellsprings of variability and getting ready for them fittingly, in light of fitting end-to-end quality exchange offs. Presently, the OSO model is a rising idea at the 5% post-trigger position, subsequent to just introductory impromptu philosophies and courses of action, and point arrangement instruments are accessible in today's production network merchant environment. Client driven data framework toolsets exist for physical supply chains. IT devices empowering a few methods inside computerized supply chains as of now exist as point arrangements for instance, inserted programming administration supporting qualifications, and prescient examination (PA) supporting Pattern-Based Strategy. Notwithstanding, the general configuration, arrangement and administration of end-to-end frameworks and arrangements taking into account an incorporated innovation toolset don't yet exist. These toolsets will develop in the following five to 10 years, with completely incorporated innovation arrangements in over 10 years. Store network Challenges Today's store network models are centered around the physical inventory network, including the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model, which arranges five key components (plan, source, make, convey and return). The SCOR model doesn't address developing information based computerized systems and data based arrangement arranges that empower OEMs to advance into an OSO. Further, there are no plainly characterized model architectures, methods and innovation toolsets that classify how to coordinate and deal with these physical, computerized and information systems to make frameworks and create data arrangements of worth to the client. The absence of clear definitions, store network structural planning and procedure structures repress inventory network pioneers from offering coordinated client interest driven data frameworks and arrangements. This, thusly, restrains innovation suppliers from offering incorporated toolsets to plan, produce, catch, approve, coordinate and deal with t he information systems. In general, SCM innovation development proceeds, with utilitarian frameworks, for example, transportation and interest arranging, keeping on being created and upgraded to backing practical execution increments. New abilities are advancing in innovation territories that exploit in-memory/ fast diagnostic transforming, greatly huge datasets and cloud-based stages (giving framework flexibility and simpler mix/onboarding capacities). A blend of these abilities is likewise advancing to bolster a more multi endeavor perspective and administration of store network business forms. Sellers predominant in developed advancements are tested with staying present and applicable. In a few zones, they may be supplanted by new, more inventive sellers in usefulness and/or organization alternatives. (Rajasree K. Rajamma, 2007) Later on, data framework and arrangement pioneers will need to deliberately oversee "amazing information" sources and physical inventory network items and administrations to make client driven data frameworks and end-to-end arrangements. Utilizing the OSO model system, store network thought pioneers alongside deals, administration, IT and item specialists must evaluate their current data framework suites and create a guide to include rising advanced and arrangement process applications and devices. Quality Chain Mapping Utilize the quality chain-mapping procedure to recognize where present and future information will be created and utilized crosswise over physical, advanced and arrangement systems. Market the potential advantages of client quality, gainfulness, productivity and administration creation as a blazing stage for cooperation crosswise over store network, IT, deals, item and administration associations. Merchants and suppliers must recognize whether and how new or repurposed innovation and IT stages empower the 10 computerized and arrangement forms. Utilize the OSO demonstrate as a typical structure to clear up parts and toolsets that backing the information administration biological community, including associations with the physical worth chain and quality added administrations gave to supplement physical systems. Business Impact: The rising OSO model and store network philosophy, including ideas, definitions, courses of action and comparing toolsets, can be utilized by both physical and computerized production network brand proprietors to make client driven data frameworks and arrangements. Key industry verticals that can influence their physical supply chains are gadget makers, including hightech, modern, aviation and protection, car, information transfers and correspondences, buyer hardware, and therapeutic gadget and gear organizations. Media content suppliers will likewise have the capacity to advantage from the OSO show by utilizing their computerized supply chains. The OSO model will make a typical system for cooperation in the middle of gatherings, and guarantee that all the vital procedure and specialized application abilities are empowered and considered in client driven data frameworks and arrangements. Coordinated Model crosswise over Distribution Chain Today, there are no far reaching models that coordinate the physical, advanced and arrangement supply chains just beginning impromptu and point arrangement ideas and strategies. Market entrance of the OSO model and toolsets for producers and substance suppliers is required to surpass 50% at development, like the broad utilization of the SCOR display and related outsider applications, toolsets and ERP suites for the administration of physical supply chains. Before inventory network empowered item way of life administration (PLM) can get to be standard, organizations must make an incorporated cross-practical methodology that will eventually oblige programming merchants to extend their foot shaped impressions through improvement, securing or associations to give the looked for after bound together stage. A gradually developing gathering of organizations have realigned their associations and measurements, coordinated advancements and layered on business knowledge (BI) usefulness to make some progress in making inventory network empowered PLM, yet innovation improvement has slacked. Innovation that is composed starting from the earliest stage as a stage for supporting end-to-end inventory network empowered PLM is still five to 10 years from being extensively accessible. Manageability Planning Manageability touchy arranging and enhancement alludes to a scope of advancements and applications that empower endeavors to evaluate, model and, eventually, streamline their supply chains, expressly considering supportability measurements, (for example, nursery gas discharges and waste). Beginning arrangements will barely concentrate on particular individual production network administration (SCM) procedures, for example, transportation arranging and system outline displaying, with an objective to upgrade a restricted arrangement of asset limitations, for example, minimizing carbon foot shaped impressions. Position and Adoption Speed Justification: Tools exist that minimize or enhance variables that could influence a production network's feasible execution, (for example, transportation wanting to minimize squandered miles and transportation mode), which could, thusly, decrease carbon emanations. In any case, apparatuses are quite recently developing, with quality uneven, that unequivocally utilize carbon foot shaped impression as an enhancement objective and have content databases that give carbon foot shaped impression variables, for example, transportation mode information, in which a diesel truck of a certain size discharges a certain measure of carbon dioxide every mile driven. In general, SCM innovation development proceeds, with utilitarian frameworks, for example, transportation and interest arranging, keeping on being created and upgraded to backing practical execution increments. New abilities are advancing in innovation territories that exploit in-memory/ fast diagnostic tran sforming, greatly huge datasets and cloud-based stages (giving framework flexibility and simpler mix/onboarding capacities). A blend of these abilities is likewise advancing to bolster a more multi endeavor perspective and administration of store network business forms. Sellers predominant in developed advancements are tested with staying present and applicable. In a few zones, they may be supplanted by new, more inventive sellers in usefulness and/or organization alternatives. (Rajasree K. Rajamma, 2007) . In general, SCM innovation development proceeds, with utilitarian frameworks, for example, transportation and interest arranging, keeping on being created and upgraded to backing practical execution increments. New abilities are advancing in innovation territories that exploit in-memory/ fast diagnostic transforming, greatly huge datasets and cloud-based stages (giving framework flexibility and simpler mix/onboarding capacities). A blend of these abilities is likewise advancing t o bolster a more multi endeavor perspective and administration of store network business forms. Sellers predominant in developed advancements are tested with staying present and applicable. In a few zones, they may be supplanted by new, more inventive sellers in usefulness and/or organization alternatives. (Rajasree K. Rajamma, 2007) References Salvatore G. Fiore, Shaun Kelly, (2007) "Surveying the use of sound in online stores: Practices, possibilities and pitfalls for user experience", International Journal of Retail Distribution Management, Vol. 35 Iss: 7, pp.600 611 Rajasree K. Rajamma, Audhesh K. Paswan, Gopala Ganesh, (2007) "Services purchased at brick and mortar versus online stores, and shopping motivation", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.200 212 Jayant Anand (2009), Supermarketization, consumer choices, and the changing food retail market structure: the case of Citlalicalli, Mexico, in Donald C. Wood (ed.)Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas (Research in Economic Anthropology, Volume 29), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.63-88 Eric T. Anderson, Duncan Simester, Florian Zettelmeyer (2010), Internet channel conflict: Problems and solutions, in Naresh K. Malhotra (ed.)7 (Review of Marketing Research, Volume 7), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.63-92